Japan Battles Deadly Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Outbreak

Japan Battles Deadly Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Outbreak

Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome Outbreak in Japan

Japan is facing a surge in cases of fulminant streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), a rare but deadly infection caused by group A streptococcus bacteria. As of June 9, 2023, the number of reported cases has exceeded 1,000, surpassing the total for all of 2022 and marking the highest number since data collection began in 1999.

The outbreak shows no signs of slowing down. This highly contagious and toxic strain, known as the "flesh-eating bacterium," can cause rapid necrosis and multiple organ failure, leading to death within hours. The fatality rate is estimated at 30%, significantly higher than most other infections.

While group A streptococcus typically causes mild illnesses like strep throat, it can become life-threatening if it enters the bloodstream through wounds. The recent increase in STSS cases coincides with a rise in pharyngitis caused by the same bacteria, suggesting a possible link.

Experts believe the culprit behind the outbreak is the M1UK strain, a highly virulent variant of group A streptococcus. This strain has been responsible for outbreaks in other countries, and its arrival in Japan is suspected to be a contributing factor.

The Ministry of Health has urged the public to take precautions against infection, including frequent handwashing, wearing masks, and keeping wounds clean. While the exact cause of the outbreak remains unclear, the ministry believes the increase in pharyngitis cases may be playing a role.

The ongoing STSS outbreak in Japan highlights the importance of infection control measures and early medical attention for streptococcal infections. While most cases of strep throat are mild, prompt treatment can prevent the development of severe complications like STSS.